05 husband and wife = look alike? -Start the assimilation of two people.

01 will appear every 100 years, and another person who looks the same-another person in parallel time and space.

There are rumors that every 100 years, there will be people who look exactly like themselves. Experience different lives with similar faces, and the arrangement of fate is really wonderful.


For example, Angie Chiu is the immortal goddess in the hearts of many of us. Since she was selected as Miss Hong Kong in 1973, she has been called beautiful. Now that she is over 70 years old, she is still very elegant, as if years have been particularly good to her in a hurry.

China soprano Jiang Ying is an old artist who is full of peaches and plums. She is the daughter of Jiang Baili, a military educator, and the wife of Qian Xuesen, the father of China’s science system. She was born more than 30 years before Angie Chiu.

These two people who can’t beat each other are strikingly similar when they were young. They are both so beautiful and elegant, and their charm is almost the same.

Do more than three groups of Avatar on the earth have blue blood?

Avatar is the world’s first 3D movie. The reruns in the first half of the year made it surpass Avengers 4 and become the highest-grossing movie in the world again.

In fact, in real life, there are also real blue skin.

An explorer saw a few blue people in the vast Sahara desert. They are as smart as Smurfs, but as soon as they see people of other colors, they will run away immediately.

Some people call them “blue people” because their skin is blue.

The reasons why these people have blue skin have given many different conclusions in science.

There are two recognized types. One is that there is a kind of “superhigh blood group protein” in the blood, but there is no enzyme to control the growth of protein, so the blood is blue, and blue blood leads to blue skin.

Second, scientists believe that this is a pathological state, because some chemical components in the blood have changed abnormally, leading to “special pathological genes.”

The indissoluble bond between skin color and environment-if you want to be cold and white, go to the hills in a group!

The difference in appearance between north and south is mentioned above. In fact, apart from the north and south, although the skin color in the east and west of China will not be clearly distinguished as yellow, white and black, relevant scientific surveys show that the skin color will change with the change of environment.

The difference of skin color between east and west is related to the topography of China. As we all know, China is characterized by high northwest and low southeast. Abundant rain, lush forests and high air humidity in the hilly areas of eastern mountainous areas will weaken solar radiation. The human body will receive less ultraviolet rays and the skin will be whiter.

Due to the lack of oxygen in the air, the number of red blood cells that transport oxygen in the human body increases, coupled with the stimulation of ultraviolet rays and sandstorms, the skin color is darker.

So, if you want to turn white, go to the eastern hilly area!

Beard is also a “colored species”-the last stubborn beard, which is useless.

When you see how many colors the beard has, do you hear the surprise that there are brown pandas besides black in the world?

It can prevent garbage from entering the nasal cavity, but because the incidental oil secretion can’t be discharged, it is labeled as a “useless” beard. It also comes in four colors: black, brown, gold and silver.

Among people with golden beards, black beards and yellow beards are often mixed together, most of them are black beards and a few are yellow beards.

There is also a view that the color of the beard is divided into pigments, and the golden beard is caused by a beard containing titanium.

However, this kind of beard appears more in fairy tales.

A silver beard means a white beard.

People with silver beards are often regarded as noble morality and extraordinary wisdom. The image of silver beard often appears in China’s historical legends. For example, the old gentleman in Taishang has a long silver beard.

05 husband and wife = look alike? -Start the assimilation of two people.

The word “husband and wife” is now used to mean that husband and wife are similar in appearance, but it is more than that.

Psychological research shows that the similarity of husband and wife’s inner hobbies, values, lifestyles and personality characteristics will also promote their feelings and attractiveness.

In the study of interpersonal attraction, similar people are attracted to each other is the most consistent finding.

Come to think of it, the friends and partners we admire are similar to ourselves in some ways.

Similar ages, similar life experiences and the same interests and hobbies are the manifestations of mutual attraction.

When we think of art, we may immediately think of paintings, sculptures and buildings created by Renaissance masters. At that time, these iconic works were respected and loved by religions, nobles and ordinary people, which still surprised us in the 21st century.


Or, we will think of some particularly novel, radical and avant-garde works, such as contemporary artists, who create unprecedented images with incomprehensible technology. In the hands of some new media artists, their cutting-edge technology and expression language are awesome.

However, it must be said that Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa or Michelangelo’s David and Van Gogh’s The Rye and the Crow are just a few important works in the long classics of art history. However, there are many other creators in human history. Some people don’t even call themselves artists, but they are also creating and expressing their works, and sometimes they even get eye-catching masterpieces.

Although many of these people have never entered an art school, received art education or held exhibitions, they have chosen an art media in many occupations, cultivated and developed their own perception and style in their own study, and finally achieved success. Among these people, some people’s talents exceed those cultivated in the traditional art education system. They collect nutrition in the field of life and produce beautiful flowers. These people, known as “folk artists”, show the spiritual masterpieces created by outsiders.

At the beginning of the 20th century, a group of young and important American modernists began to pay attention to the types of folk art. They brought the frank and abstract form of early American folk art and their love for color into the scope of research and investigation, and found something worth learning by modernist artists, which is equivalent to the new anti-traditional spirit they learned and felt in the European continent and the new experiment they created in the United States. Combine local culture and primitive power to explore new modernist art.

In the early study of folk art, American modernist artists traced back to the mainstream characteristics of these artistic creations, and sought inspiration from folk art in the form of landscapes, portraits, fabrics, utensils, maps and geographical paintings, and started an artistic journey of reviewing nature and returning to the original intention.

Holger Cahill planned a landmark art exhibition entitled American Folk Art: Art of the Common Man in America (1750-1900) in 1932. In MoMA’s exhibition, Cahill focused on the era of “pre-industrialization” and showed the unconventional aspects of American tradition.

In terms of art, the paintings and sculptures in the exhibition are the works of art lovers and craftsmen in the 18th and 19th centuries. These creators are house painters, trademark painters, portrait painters, carpenters, cabinet manufacturers, shipbuilders, metal smelters, blacksmiths, and even sailors, farmers, businessmen, housewives and girls in boarding schools. These people have no artistic training, but they all know how to coordinate their hands and eyes and then create beautiful activities. Cahill said that before the big machine era, “people can show simple and unaffected childlike interest. These men and women have little or no training in art schools, and no one even knows that they are engaged in artistic creation.

In the 1940s, Jean Lipman, an art critic and collector, pointed out that folk art was the product of great democracy. It is spontaneous, natural, non-derivative and non-academic. Thirty years later, Herbert Wai de Hampshire, Jr. and Julia Weissman, together in their book American Folk Art and Artists in the 20th Century, extended this scope to world artists and asserted that “the vision of folk artists is private, and it is a display of personal world, and it is a world created by one person.

Nowadays, folk art has been widely recognized. From painting to sculpture, from exquisite decoration to large buildings, as a broad artistic term, it describes the creation of various media and technologies. These works have clear characteristics, that is, they are not based on any traditional schools and styles in the history of art (such as futurism, cubism, surrealism or arts and crafts movement), nor are they influenced by academic circles, nor will they respond to popular philosophical and cultural criticisms at that time. On the one hand, folk art is usually rooted in the tradition of community or group culture. The aesthetic value of one or more works is usually used to express the identity consciousness from these places, mostly group identification, not just the creator’s own personal identity, which is very different from strange contemporary art.

Stephanie Knappe, curator of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, explained: “Many folk art works came from before the rise of the middle class and were not affected by mechanized production. In the period of great changes, folk artists often continue to trace back and inherit the cultural traditions of their regions. Find a stable and peaceful living atmosphere in the works and maintain the vitality of past civilization.

However, this does not mean that all folk artists are conservative and work according to the rules. Some talented creators will feel the pain and joy in life, and regard art as an unparalleled expression, and express their central feelings and feelings in other ways. Because of this, folk art is very open in appearance, promoting its own personality and expressing its own views. Therefore, it is difficult to find a group of folk artists doing the same thing. They will not form a common theme or style, and it is difficult to be classified into one category. In this case, the most important reason to attract us to watch folk art is to experience and appreciate the free will of this barbaric growth, and let a hundred flowers blossom, each with its own merits.

Watching the works of a group of famous folk artists will help us to further understand the significance of American folk art. People may not know the names of these artists, but there are often very interesting stories behind their works. For example, the name Leonard Knight is rarely seen, but in the United States, almost no one knows it, and no one knows it. East of the Salton Sea in California, an artificial landscape, Salvation Mountain, made of straw and a lot of paint, attracted thousands of people, even entered advertisements, movies and pop music, and was loved by people.

This mountain full of bright patterns and fairy tales is a work of art completed by Leonard Knight himself. He spent his whole life creating and maintaining it. He expressed infinite praise for faith, love and peace with his immersive visual landscape.

Nate has lived in Save the Mountain for many years. He painted in the mountains during the day, lived behind a truck at night and adopted many stray cats. He is happy and self-sufficient. Knight once said, “If someone gives me $100,000 a week to move to a mansion, I will refuse.”

I think it’s amazing to live here, just like living in a fairy tale world, isn’t it? Like Knight, many folk artists have unified their aesthetic values and living environment through painting, sculpture and sewing. These artists mainly live and work far away from the city center, seeking inspiration from nature and peace. Their works contain elements such as plants, animals, religion and writing, and have a certain spirit of animism. Almost all folk artists like bright colors, extensive and direct paint applications, patterns and patterns on the surface, bright light recombination, exaggerated proportions of things and very eye-catching figures.

For example, Ammi Phillips, born in 1788, was a prolific portrait painter. It is said that in his 50-year creative career, he has created as many as 2,000 paintings, and is regarded as a self-taught master. His famous work “The Girl in Red Holding a Cat and a Dog” is still one of the most popular works in American Folk Art Museum. His paintings are simple in temperament, flat in background and eye-catching in color application.

Up to now, portrait painting is still the most popular and popular art form among folk painters in the United States. These artists often start their careers late, or create in their spare time in other professions to seek some commissions. Although most people have developed unique styles and artistic skills, all their works are different from traditional cultural portraits; The most outstanding performance is: the role image of single and mode.

These portraits have the characteristics of clear shape, neat structure and clear spatial layout. Some have almost mathematical accuracy and symmetry, and the lighting is very uniform. The painter pays the same attention and expression to all areas of the canvas, and the brushwork is very flat. Therefore, the whole painting looks even and rigid, and there are few idle pens with choice and poetry. In terms of flatness and linear description, it reveals the rules and persistence of children’s painting.

In any case, the study of folk portraits is a fresh and striking theory. They are neat, rigorous and meticulous, which matches the creator’s simple temperament, rural life and farming background. There is no fundamental difference between the characters’ postures, decorative props and scene settings in rural portraits and those used by professional artists in cities, but to some extent, professional portraits bear certain European academic practice. In contrast, these folk portraits are unrestricted in all aspects, which are often more in line with the artist’s creative mood and technical requirements.

In traditional portrait art, the pride and class status of the customizer are very important, which is obvious in the element composition of a painting. Important people often wear gorgeous clothes. Fur, velvet, ribbons, pearls and other decorations are not only the artist’s technical display, but also the artist’s identity display. The painting objects of folk artists are often their relatives and friends, or rural customers who make friends according to their own class. As a whole, these creators and the characters described in the portraits are simple and simple. In the noisy upper class, they are often taciturn and very cautious about personality and emotion. Therefore, the characters in folk portraits all show very simple, kind and distant personalities. They are eager to be recorded, leaving beautiful things and moments, and declaring their condescension to be different.

Joseph Akoum, an African-American painter, is also a self-taught landscape painter. In the last ten years of his life, he wrote more than 2,000 poems and began to record his private memories. These landscape paintings are highly artistic, and memories appear in the form of fictional landscapes. The expression of colors and lines in the picture is restrained and affectionate.

He claimed that he had traveled around the world all his life and had done a lot of odd jobs. However, artistic creation is the time for him to really settle down. He did one or two sketches or watercolors every day until he died on Christmas morning in 1972 at the age of 82. Influenced by his life, Akoum’s paintings show the unique landform of his birthplace (Window, Arizona, Navajo reservation near Rock), which is full of imagination in form, as if it were a story from the painter’s heart.

Among all American folk painters, anna marie Mary Robertson should be the most famous one in the world. Her name is also Grandma Moses. At the age of 78, a farmer’s wife began to pick up brushes and began her career as a painter in earnest. Facts have proved that it is never too late to be an artist. Grandma Moses is willing to open a new chapter in his life and try new things when ordinary old people start to support themselves.

Her works are regarded as “simple realism”, which highlights the quiet beauty of rural life. Her career flourished while she was still alive and was highly praised. It was not until she was 101 years old that her paintings were made into decorative greeting cards, calendars, postcards and other commodities, which were exhibited and sold in the United States and abroad.

At first, she charged $3 to $5 per painting, depending on its size; With the improvement of her reputation, her works were later sold for 8,000 to 10,000 dollars. Grandma Moses’s paintings not only entered the art gallery, but also appeared on the cover of magazines. She appeared on TV and documentaries. She even wrote an autobiography in her later years, “My Life History” won numerous awards, and grandma herself won honorary doctorates from two universities.

The New York Times praised Grandma Moses’s paintings and said, “Grandma Moses described simple farm life and simple rural realism. The nostalgic atmosphere and bright colors attracted her extensive attention. She can capture the excitement of the first snow in winter, the preparation for Thanksgiving, and the new green in the coming spring … The place where Grandma Moses has been personally is very charming. This slim and lively woman has naughty gray eyes, wit and sensitivity. Grandma Moses described early scenes of country life, calling them old New England landscapes.

Although she lacks knowledge of the basic painting history or the traditional perspective, Grandma Moses is probably the most personal folk painter. Her rejection of the inherent views made her early paintings more realistic or primitive, full of simple composition. With the development of her career, her mature paintings are ambitious, creating a complex, diverse and panoramic rural life. Her winter paintings even remind people of some works by Pieter brug, a Nederland master, which describe winter scenes, including scenery, geography, rich character stories and amazing picture layout ability.

Her paintings always exude a relaxed and cheerful optimism; The world she showed us is simple, beautiful and desirable. Grandma Moses said that she got inspiration from nature and began to paint, and then “I will forget everything, except the past and how to paint, and all the troubles will disappear. Painting will let people know about our past life. “In art, she deliberately avoided the characteristics of modern life, such as modern agricultural tools and urbanization landscape, but looked for nostalgic scenes in simple countryside and charming

Similarly, if a couple is very harmonious and happy because of similar sexual life, then their lives must be full of happiness, and synchronous smiles will appear on their faces, and the position of “smiles” will be the same, which will also increase the similarity of husband and wife’s appearance in this respect.

In other words, in the long-term common life, two people imitate each other and cooperate tacitly, which will gradually form more and more similarities, especially the consistency of expression, action and expression, forming the so-called “husband and wife stage”.

So, love her (him) just as she (he) grows the same wrinkles ~

Ancient Indians will be sentenced to death for their ugly appearance-fortunately, it is the 21st century.

Ancient Indians attached great importance to people’s appearance, and the Cateo people in the upper reaches of the Indus River chose the person with the best appearance as the king.

There is also an incredible rule that a baby should be judged by the public after two months to determine whether his appearance meets the legal standards and decide whether he should continue to live.

If the children are recognized as ugly, the judge will be sentenced to death.

We often say that “one white covers all the ugliness”, and ancient Indians also advocate whitening.

In 3000 BC, they began to whiten with lead powder. Later, this cosmetic formula spread to China, Greece and Rome, and was welcomed by local women.

In ancient India, not only women put on makeup, but also men in some big cities put on makeup.

After taking a bath every day, they should coat their bodies with fat and sprinkle some spices on their clothes. Their eyes were dyed with medicine, their lips were dyed, and then they were coated with a thin layer of wax to prevent fading. They also dye their beards in many colors, such as white, black, red, purple or grass green.

People can control their appearance-a scientific research based on mind.

The natural physiognomy of each of us cannot be changed, but besides the physiognomy, the posture and face can be “controlled by ourselves”.

I don’t know if you will have a kind of “xxx is crooked” or “xxx doesn’t know where it has changed, but it just feels wrong”, which is the performance of “mutual mind”.

The so-called mutual affection is actually to change one’s attitude and lifestyle. The changes in these places are enough to make people feel that this person’s appearance has changed very obviously.

Acquired habits can change people’s appearance to a great extent, such as changing temperament through posture training, increasing vitality through exercise, and changing skin through diet. These are all processes of “controlling appearance”.

The information people send to the world will eventually be fed back to their own hearts. For example, if we send the message “I am beautiful” to the universe, the universe will give us the message “You are beautiful”.

Does the eight-pack abdominal muscle come from fish?

You may not believe that the eight-pack abdominal muscles pursued by modern aesthetics are typical human evolutionary residues.

It is found that the muscle characteristics of 8 abdominal muscles separated from connective tissue are consistent with the muscle texture of fish. Fish has always retained this feature in the process of evolution.

In the process of continuous evolution, a large number of terrestrial animals have lost this feature. Only humans still retain rectus abdominis, and many people get more obvious abdominal muscles through exercise.

This has also become a major feature of the evolution of marine fish into humans.

The above is the content of the cold knowledge that Xiao Yin brought you. Paying too much attention to beauty will make people feel insecure. A person’s best state is her

A genie in a bottle might grant you a wish, but neutrons trapped in a bottle aren’t so accommodating.


An artificial intelligence that navigates its environment much like mammals do could help solve a mystery about our own internal GPS.

Equipped with virtual versions of specialized brain nerve cells called grid cells, the AI could easily solve and plan new routes through virtual mazes. That performance, described online May 9 in Nature, suggests the grid cells in animal brains play a critical role in path planning.

“This is a big step forward” in understanding our own navigational neural circuitry, says Ingmar Kanitscheider, a computational neuroscientist at the University of Texas at Austin not involved in the work.

The discovery that rats track their location with the help of grid cells, which project an imaginary hexagonal lattice onto an animal’s surroundings, earned a Norwegian research team the 2014 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (SN Online: 10/6/14). Neuroscientists suspected these cells, which have also been found in humans, might help not only give mammals an internal coordinate system, but also plan direct paths between points (SN Online: 8/5/13).

To test that idea, neuroscientist Caswell Barry at University College London, along with colleagues at Google DeepMind, created an AI that contained virtual nerve cells, or neurons, whose activity resembled that of real grid cells. The researchers trained this AI to navigate virtual mazes by giving the system reward signals when it reached its destination.

The AI bested a human expert player at solving the virtual mazes, and proved savvier than other artificial neural networks in maneuvering through labyrinths larger than those traversed during its training. When a door opened to provide a shortcut through the maze, the new AI took the more direct route. By contrast, AI systems without artificial grid cells ignored the open door and took the long way around.

These findings support the idea that grid cells do more than help mammals orient themselves in time and space (SN Online: 11/4/15); they also help animals devise the most straightforward directions to destinations. AI also appears to be “a very powerful tool” for testing other neuroscience theories, Barry says. He and his colleagues suggest that virtual experiments on artificial neural networks that imitate different regions of the brain may eventually replace some animal testing.

But there are limitations to using AI to study the brain. Because the system is meant to learn on its own, researchers can’t tell why the system made a specific decision, says neuroscientist Francesco Savelli at Johns Hopkins University, whose commentary also appears online May 9 in Nature. The virtual grid cells clearly helped the AI navigate more efficiently, he says, but it’s still unclear precisely how the AI used those cells.


A genie in a bottle might grant you a wish, but neutrons trapped in a bottle aren’t so accommodating.

Outside of an atomic nucleus, the neutral particles eventually decay into other particles. But scientists aren’t sure exactly how long neutrons stick around for before their demise: Two types of neutron lifetime measurements disagree. One type of estimate, made with a beam of neutrons, finds a lifetime about nine seconds longer than another technique, which involves trapping neutrons in a “bottle” and later counting how many remain.

Now, physicists have made a new, more precise bottle measurement of the neutron’s lifetime, pegging it at 877.7 seconds, or around 14.6 minutes, a team reports online May 6 in Science. Although the new measurement fixes some of the pitfalls of earlier experiments, it still disagrees with the beam experiments.

The impasse is hindering attempts to understand the infant universe, causing problems for calculations of how atomic nuclei formed after the Big Bang. Scientists can’t yet explain the difference, but some have speculated that weird new particles could be to blame.

And that presents the next challenge: Planetary scientists have to figure out what the data are telling them.

Toad versus bombardier beetle is almost a fair fight. Toads are hugely bigger, can tongue-strike in an eyeblink and swallow all kinds of nasty stuff. But bombardier beetles can shoot hot steam and noxious chemicals from their back ends.

In a lab face-off, 43 percent of Pheropsophus jessoensis bombardiers escaped alive after being swallowed by toads, a pair of researchers at Kobe University in Japan report February 7 in Biology Letters. These lucky beetles were vomited up — in one case, 107 minutes after being gulped — covered with goo, but still able to pull themselves together and walk away. Fifteen of the 16 beetles coughed up into daylight lived for at least 17 days, with one still going 562 days later.

Scalding internal beetle blasts proved vital in persuading the toads to spit the bugs up, ecologists Shinji Sugiura and Takuya Sato report. The pair prodded beetles into spraying until no more defensive chemicals remained, and then fed defenseless beetles to toads. The toads kept almost all of these beetles down.

The bombardier group of more than 600 beetle species has become a textbook example of chemical defense (SN Online: 4/30/15). When provoked, the beetles mix two substances inside their abdomens that react explosively, then shoot this cocktail out of their bodies in a noxious stream that can reach around 100° Celsius. Yet the defenses of very few of the species have been tested, Sugiura says.

P. jessoensis beetles are common in East Asia. In the lab, wild-caught toads (Bufo japonicus and B. torrenticola) willingly swallowed these beetles. With each big gulp, the researchers listened for the sound of an outraged beetle blast inside the toad. “Not easy to hear,” Sugiura says, but it’s possible to catch a slight bu or vu sound.

Surviving beetles spent 12 to 107 minutes in a toad stomach with average stomach time in the 40-minute range. To vomit, a toad has to sort of turn its stomach inside out, which isn’t a quick process. So far, researchers don’t know if the swallowed beetles have any tricks for survival, such as somehow chemically lessening the power of toad gastric juices.

Making a toad give back its lunch is an accomplishment. “Toads are tough,” says evolutionary ecologist Rick Shine of the University of Sydney, who has studied cane toads. They can eat bees, though he has run across an account suggesting even this voracious species finds swallowing a big carpenter bee a bit uncomfortable, performing “abdominal motions suggestive of the Hawaiian hula.”

Swallowing a bombardier beetle sounds much worse, says Gregory Brown, also with the University of Sydney. That hot chemical blast would be like “having a small bomb go off in their stomachs,” he says. “What does surprise me is that the defense only worked around 50 percent of the time.”


There’s a planet just next door that could explain the origins of life in the universe. It was probably once covered in oceans (SN Online: 8/1/17). It may have been habitable for billions of years (SN Online: 8/26/16). Astronomers are desperate to land spacecraft there.

No, not Mars. That tantalizing planet is Venus. But despite all its appeal, Venus is one of the hardest places in the solar system to get to know. That’s partly because modern Venus is famously hellish, with temperatures hot enough to melt lead and choking clouds of sulfuric acid.

“If you wanted sinners to fry in their own juice, Venus would be the place to send them,” V. S. Avduevsky, deputy director of the Soviet Union’s spaceflight control center, said in 1976 after his country’s Venera 9 and 10 landers returned their dismal view of the planet’s landscape (SN: 6/19/76, p. 388).

Today, would-be Venus explorers say they have the technology to master those damning conditions. “There’s a perception that Venus is a very difficult place to have a mission,” says planetary scientist Darby Dyar of Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Mass. “Everybody knows about the high pressures and temperatures on Venus, so people think we don’t have technology to survive that. The answer is that we do.”

And researchers are actively developing more Venus-defying technology while vying for the financial support needed to get a mission off the ground.

In 2017, five Venus projects — including a mapping orbiter, a probe that would taste the atmosphere as it fell through it, and landers that would zap rocks with lasers — failed to get NASA’s green light for flight. But all were considered technologically ready to go, and the laser team got funding for technology development.

“NASA’s mission selection process is highly competitive,” says Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA’s science mission programs in Washington, D.C. “Earth’s so-called ‘twin’ planet Venus is a fascinating body, and of tremendous interest to our science community… the Venus community should continue to compete for future missions.”

Visiting Venus

From afar, Venus and Earth would look like equally promising targets in the search for alien life. Both are roughly the same size and mass, and Venus lies close to the sun’s habitable zone, where temperatures enable stable liquid water on a planet’s surface.

“We need to understand what made a planet go down the Venus path rather than the Earth path,” says astrobiologist David Grinspoon of the Planetary Science Institute, who is based in Washington, D.C.

A few orbiters have visited Venus in the past decade, including the European Space Agency’s Venus Express from 2006 to 2014, and the Japanese space agency’s Akatsuki, in orbit since December 2015. But despite dozens of proposed missions spanning almost 30 years, no NASA spacecraft has visited Earth’s twin since the Magellan craft ended its mission by plunging into Venus’ atmosphere in 1994 and burning up. And no spacecraft at all have landed on the Venusian surface since 1985.

One obvious barrier is Venus’ thick atmosphere which, in recent images from Akatsuki, makes the planet look like a smooth, milky marble. The atmosphere is 96.5 percent carbon dioxide, which blocks scientists’ view of the surface in almost all wavelengths of light. As recently as 2011, astronomers thought it was impossible to use spectroscopy — a technique that splits light from an object into different wavelengths to tell an object’s composition — from orbit to reveal what Venus’ surface is made of.

But it turns out that Venus’ atmosphere is transparent to at least five wavelengths of light that can help identify different minerals. Venus Express proved it would work: Looking at one infrared wavelength allowed astronomers to see hot spots that might be signs of active volcanism (SN Online: 6/19/15). An orbiter that used the other four wavelengths, too, could do even more, Dyar says.

Ground truth

To really understand the surface, scientists want to go there. But a lander would have to contend with the opaque atmosphere while looking for a safe place to touch down. The best map of Venus’ surface, based on radar data from Magellan, is too low-resolution to show rocks or slopes that could topple a lander, says James Garvin of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

Garvin and his colleagues are testing a computer vision technique called Structure from Motion that could help a lander map its own landing site on the way down. Quickly analyzing many images of stationary objects taken from different angles as the spacecraft descends can create a 3-D rendering of the ground.

A tryout in a helicopter over a quarry in Maryland showed that the technology could plot boulders less than half a meter across, about the size of a basketball hoop. “With a handful of GoPro pictures, we made beautiful little topographic maps,” Garvin says. “We can do it at Venus even with this crappy atmosphere that is so murky you wouldn’t think it works.” He plans to present the experiment in March in The Woodlands, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

Once a lander has made it to Venus’ surface, it faces its next challenge: surviving.

The first landers on Venus, the Soviet Venera spacecraft in the 1970s and ‘80s, lasted around an hour each. The longevity record set by Venera 13 in 1982 was two hours and seven minutes. The planet’s surface is about 460° Celsius and its pressure is about 90 times that of Earth’s sea level, so spacecraft don’t have long before some crucial component is melted, crushed or corroded by the acidic atmosphere.

Modern missions are not expected to do much better: one hour minimum, five hours optimistically and 24 hours “in your wildest dreams,” Dyar says.

But a team at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland is designing a lander that could last months. “We’re going to try to live on the surface of Venus,” says engineer Tibor Kremic of NASA Glenn.

Instead of using bulk to absorb heat or countering it with refrigeration, the proposed lander, called LLISSE (Long-Lived In-Situ Solar System Explorer), would use simple electronics made of silicon carbide that can withstand Venusian temperatures.

“They’re not Pentiums, but they’re able to provide a reasonable amount of functionality,” says NASA Glenn electronics engineer Gary Hunter.

The group has tested the circuits in a Venus simulation chamber called GEER (Glenn Extreme Environment Rig). “Think of a giant soup can,” but with 6-centimeter-thick walls, Kremic says. The circuits still worked after 21.7 days in a simulated Venus atmosphere, reported Philip Neudeck of NASA Glenn in AIP Advances in 2016. Scheduling issues put an end to the experiment, but the circuits could have lasted longer, Hunter says.

Ultimately, the team wants to build a prototype lander that can last for 60 days. On Venus, that would be long enough to act as a weather station, monitoring changes in the atmosphere over time. “That has never been done before,” Kremic says.

Reading rocks

And that presents the next challenge: Planetary scientists have to figure out what the data are telling them.

Rocks interact with the Venusian atmosphere differently than with Earth’s or Mars’ atmospheres. Mineralogists identify rocks based on the light they reflect and emit, but high temperature and pressure can shift light in ways that depend on the mineral’s crystal structure. Even when scientists get data on Venusian rocks, interpretation could be tricky.

“We don’t even know what to look for,” Dyar says.

Ongoing experiments at GEER are helping set the baseline. Scientists can leave rocks and other materials in the chamber for months at a time just to see what happens to them. Dyar and her colleagues are doing similar experiments in a high-temperature chamber at the Institute of Planetary Research in Berlin.

“We try to understand the physics of how things happen on the Venus surface so we can be better prepared when we explore,” Kremic says.

Two of the mission concepts NASA didn’t green-light use different strategies. VISAGE (Venus In-Situ Atmospheric and Geochemical Explorer) proposed bringing powdered rocks into a chamber inside the lander that maintains Earthlike conditions and measuring them there.

VICI (Venus In-situ Composition Investigations) takes a hands-off approach: Shoot rocks with a laser and analyze the resulting puff of dust. The Mars Curiosity rover uses that technique, but the density of Venus’ atmosphere might make the results harder to understand. The team is testing the technique in a Venus simulation chamber at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.

“We’re convinced it will work,” says VICI principal investigator Lori Glaze at NASA Goddard. “We just need to do some more work to convince the rest of the community.”

There’s hope on the horizon, if Venus explorers can shrink their ambitions. Last year, NASA established a program called Venus Bridge to see if any missions to Venus can fly for $200 million or less. That figure is less than half the cost — and in some cases much less than half — of recently proposed missions.

“I’m a strong believer that constraints breed innovation,” Zurbuchen says, adding that advances in technology mean there are ways to explore that didn’t exist a decade ago. “If you put a financial constraint on it, great missions can happen.”

It would be hard to make meaningful headway on science questions for that little, Dyar notes. “The Venus community is torn,” she adds. But it may take multiple piecemeal missions to understand Venus anyway. “We’ll get the frosting on one trip and the cake on a different trip.”

In the meantime, the Venus hopefuls soldier on.

“My new favorite saying for the Venus community is, ‘Never give up, never surrender,’” Glaze says. “We keep trying.”

potentially confusing terrestrial telescopes. From Earth, a glint of light could be a distant star or just a hunk of metal.

OXON HILL, Md. — Even as technological advances allow astronomers to peer more deeply into the cosmos than ever before, new technologies also have the potential to create blinding pollution.

Three sources of pollution — space debris, radio interference and light pollution — already are particularly worrisome. And the situation is getting worse. In the next two decades, as many as 20,000 satellites could be launched into low Earth orbit, LEDs will become the dominant source of artificial light, and fifth-generation mobile networks will fill radio frequencies, speakers warned during the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society. These sources of pollution could prevent astronomers from getting a clear look at the night sky, limiting the sensitivity and accuracy of their measurements.

Space debris is perhaps the most nascent form of human pollution. But only six decades after Sputnik’s launch into pristine skies, the orbit around Earth is now filled with nearly 18,000 objects tracked by the United States Strategic Command. These objects range in size from about centimeter-long chunks of material to bus-sized satellites. Space debris can both damage existing space telescopes and reflect light, potentially confusing terrestrial telescopes. From Earth, a glint of light could be a distant star or just a hunk of metal.

“The worst is yet to come,” said Patrick Seitzer, an astronomer at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. “We’re going to double our catalog [of debris] over the next 20 years.” Aerospace company Boeing, for instance, has proposed launching a global network of nearly 3,000 satellites. Collisions between any two satellites can create thousands of pieces of debris.

Down on Earth, light pollution is a well-known phenomenon (SN: 7/9/16, p. 32) and the shift to LEDs, or light-emitting diodes, is worsening the problem. In 2010, LEDs constituted less than 1 percent of the American lighting market. Today, they account for about half of the market, and that share is expected to grow.

LEDs have environmental and economic benefits, being long-lived and energy efficient. But they emit a broad spectrum of light, including blue-rich light, which is particularly bad for astronomy. Blue-rich light scatters more easily than light with longer wavelengths, like yellow, which worsens sky glow and makes it tougher to see stars.

Invisible to the naked eye, radio frequency interference is no less detrimental to astronomy than optical light pollution. For astronomers who observe the universe through radio waves generated by stars and galaxies, interference from an Earth-based source can easily drown out any far-off signal.

Just as radio channels close to each other in frequency can bleed into one another, creating static, so too can radio interference from different technologies bleed into the channels astronomers use to observe. As more and more space on the spectrum is gobbled up by new technology such as 5G mobile networks, radio astronomers will have to grapple with more potential interference. For instance, radar on driverless cars could affect radio astronomy operations up to 100 kilometers away, said Harvey Liszt, a radio astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, Va.

Faced with the prospect of encroaching technology on Earth, the late astronomer Jean Heidmann proposed in 1998 designating an area on the far side of the moon for an observatory that would be safe from space debris, light and radio pollution.

Short of that extreme solution, continuing government regulation of radio frequencies is crucial. “Without spectrum protection, radio astronomers would lose the ability to observe,” Liszt said. Astronomers may need to expand and secure radio quiet zones like the one surrounding the Green Bank Observatory in West Virginia to preserve a future for Earth-based radio astronomy.

When it comes to artificial light, none would be best. That’s a futile fight, astronomers agreed, but there are solutions. Flagstaff, Ariz., is adopting LED lights, but they are what’s called narrow-band amber LEDs, which limit sky glow because they resemble the yellow, low-pressure sodium lights astronomers prefer.

“Dark skies have become part of the culture here,” said astronomer Jeff Hall, director of the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff. “It’s … a community value. We even have a company called Dark Sky Brewing.”

For now, many astronomers hope that such down-to-earth solutions to pollution will work.


Nerve cells in the brain make elaborate connections and exchange lightning-quick messages that captivate scientists. But these cells also sport simpler, hairlike protrusions called cilia. Long overlooked, the little stubs may actually have big jobs in the brain.

Researchers are turning up roles for nerve cell cilia in a variety of brain functions. In a region of the brain linked to appetite, for example, cilia appear to play a role in preventing obesity, researchers report January 8 in three studies in Nature Genetics. Cilia perched on nerve cells may also contribute to brain development, nerve cell communication and possibly even learning and memory, other research suggests.

“Perhaps every neuron in the brain possesses cilia, and most neuroscientists don’t know they’re there,” says Kirk Mykytyn, a cell biologist at Ohio State University College of Medicine in Columbus. “There’s a big disconnect there.”

Most cells in the body — including those in the brain — possess what’s called a primary cilium, made up of lipid molecules and proteins. The functions these appendages perform in parts of the body are starting to come into focus (SN: 11/3/12, p. 16). Cilia in the nose, for example, detect smell molecules, and cilia on rod and cone cells in the eye help with vision. But cilia in the brain are more mysterious.

The new research offers some clarity. In one study, molecular geneticist Christian Vaisse of the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues studied mutations in a protein called MC4R that are known to cause severe obesity in people. Experiments on mice showed that MC4R normally resides within the cilia on appetite-controlling nerve cells. But several of these mutations prevented MC4R from reaching those cells’ cilia from elsewhere in the cells, experiments on cells in dishes showed. And one of these mutations prevented MC4R from reaching nerve cell cilia in the brains of mice.

When the researchers interfered with ADCY3, a protein in the cilia that helps MC4R regulate appetite, the resulting mice became obese. Those results suggest that MC4R must reach the cilia in order to interact with ADCY3 and work properly. In the other two papers, scientists link the ADCY3 gene to obesity in people, providing more evidence that cilia are involved in obesity.

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That link has already been found in rare cases. Mutations that affect cilia can cause severe obesity, as seen with diseases such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome. But the new results hint that abnormal cilia may be more widely involved in obesity. Earlier genetic studies have tied obesity to the MC4R gene, which the mouse study now shows to be important in cilia. It’s possible that many of the common genetic obesity culprits may actually be tinkering with the primary cilia, Vaisse says.

It’s not yet clear why the MC4R protein needs to reach the cilia to control appetite, Mykytyn says. It’s possible that the appendages possess the right mix of helper proteins that aid MC4R in its job. Or cilia might change the way the protein works, allowing it to be more efficient.

Although many questions remain, the new study “opens up the window a little more” on what cilia actually do in the brain, how they function — and what can happen when they don’t, says Nick Berbari, a cell biologist at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis.

It’s possible that cilia have even broader roles in memory, learning and perhaps mental health, Berbari says. Mice without normal cilia in parts of their brain had trouble remembering a painful shock and recognizing familiar objects, he and colleagues reported in PLOS One in 2014. Though speculative, impaired cilia signaling may even be involved in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, the researchers wrote in that study.

Other brain functions are getting assigned to cilia, too. Mykytyn and his colleagues have found a protein in cilia that detects the chemical messenger dopamine, a signal that helps certain nerve cells operate. And like the obesity-related MC4R protein, this dopamine detector needs to be on a cilium to work properly.

Cilia may be capable of much more than acting as little antennae that sense signals outside of nerve cells. The stubby appendages may actually be able to send messages themselves, results from a 2014 study in Current Biology suggest. There, scientists reported that nerve cell cilia in C. elegans worms could float little packets containing chemical messages into the space between cells. Those signals may have a role in the worms’ behavior, the researchers suspect.

Examining the various roles of cilia in the brain is tough, Mykytyn says. There is no simple way to separate cilia from the rest of cells’ outer membranes. The challenges are greater with elaborate nerve cells, where cilia can be relatively small.

But advances in microscopy and genetic tricks that can allow scientists to manipulate specific aspects of cilia may reveal more about how these “underappreciated appendages” work, Berbari says — even in places as mysterious as the brain.

Looking forward to our national youth fighters, in the life-and-death war with South Korea, there will be no regrets!

The quarter-finals of the U20 Asian Cup are in full swing! China men’s soccer team is about to face the powerful Korean team in the quarter-finals! In the two Asian Cup knockout matches completed before this, the two favourites to win the championship were all out!

Host Uzbekistan vs Australia! Uzbekistan successfully drew Australia and dragged the game into a cruel penalty shootout. In the final penalty shootout, Uzbekistan advanced to the top four of the U20 Asian Cup with a total score of 6-5. Another game, the same is to defeat the strong with the weak! Iraq beat Iran 1-0 to advance to the top four! Two other places will be promoted soon. China and South Korea, Japan and Jordan will compete for the last two semi-finals of the Asian Cup!

The precautions for taking a sauna include not being overworked, not hungry, paying attention to hydration, removing jewelry, and people who have a cold or are during menstruation should not take a sauna. Sauna, also known as Finnish bath, refers to the process of using steam to perform physical therapy on the human body in a closed room.


It is not advisable to be overworked and hungry

Under normal circumstances, it is not advisable to take a sauna when you are overworked or hungry, because the human body has poor muscle tone when you are tired or hungry, and has a reduced ability to tolerate cold and hot stimuli. Sauna at this time is likely to cause collapse. If you experience collapse during the sauna, you should immediately lie down and rest, give warm tea or sugar water to drink, and use your fingers to pinch and press acupoints such as Renzhong, Neiguan, and Hegu, or acupuncture at Hegu, Zusanli and other acupoints. Helps in first aid for collapsed patients.

Pay attention to hydration

You must pay attention to replenishing water during the sauna. It is best to drink two glasses of boiled water before the sauna. Don’t forget to replenish water during the sauna, because the human body will lose a lot of water due to sweating during the sauna. body fluids, which can lead to dehydration if left unhydrated. If dehydration occurs during the sauna session, the patient needs to be moved to a cool environment in time, given appropriate sugar and saline solution, and pay attention to rest.

Remove the jewelry

In addition, do not wear jewelry, such as jade pendants, necklaces, watches, etc., when you are in the sauna, because jewelry can easily absorb heat, and wearing them during the sauna may burn your skin or cause skin discomfort. If you experience collapse during the sauna, you should immediately lie down and rest, give warm tea or sugar water to drink, and use your fingers to pinch and press acupoints such as Renzhong, Neiguan, and Hegu, or acupuncture at Hegu, Zusanli and other acupoints. Helps in first aid for collapsed patients.

People who have a cold or are in menstrual period should not take a sauna

It should also be noted that not all people are suitable for sauna, and patients with a cold should not take a sauna, because the bacteria hidden in the sauna can enter the human body through the respiratory tract, which can easily aggravate the patient’s cold condition, and can cause pneumonia and other diseases in severe cases. In addition, it is not suitable for girls to take a sauna during their menstrual period, so as not to cause upward infection.

Sauna is a special bathing method, which not only relieves fatigue, relieves pain, and relaxes joints. It is usually suitable for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It also has the effect of dilating skin blood vessels, promoting blood circulation, and helping the waste in the body. Excluded, can make the deep layer of the skin obtain more effective nutrients.


China U20 men’s soccer team returned to the quarterfinals of the Asian Cup after 9 years! In the death group, China suffered a severe reversal when it led Japan 1-0 in the opening match, and got a good start 1-2. After that, the national football team broke out in desperation, defeated Saudi Arabia 2-0 in the qualifying battle, and drew Kyrgyzstan 1-1 in the final qualifying key battle to successfully qualify for the second place in the group! In the face of South Korea, the China team has no retreat, and it is expected that the national youth players will show their fighting spirit and fighting spirit and do every detail as they did against Saudi Arabia.


Against the powerful Korean team, the China men’s soccer team is not without opportunities! This year’s China U20 national football team clearly identified its position, adhered to the defensive counterattack and achieved great success, which was also able to miraculously qualify in the death group! Now, if we continue to stick to the defensive counterattack strategy, the miracle is likely to be continued! After three group matches, China U20 national football team’s ability to fight is constantly improving, and the goalkeeper’s brave play and the defense of China men’s football team are reassuring!


The future of China Men’s Football Team is in Xinjiang! Up to 7 players in the current U20 National Youth Team are from Xinjiang! Those who can’t kill us will only make us stronger! Every time the South Korean team fails to attack, it is an accumulation of opportunities for the national youth soldiers! With a good defense, China only needs a defensive counterattack to kill South Korea and advance to the Asian Cup semi-finals!


If miracles have color, it must be red! Looking forward to our national youth fighters, in the life-and-death war with South Korea, there will be no regrets! China’s men’s soccer team won the U20 Asian Cup, dating back to 1985, and the men’s soccer team in South Korea and China looked forward to a miracle.

A few days ago, the famous actor Dou Xiao and the gambling king He Chaolian got married in Bali.

A few days ago, the famous actor Dou Xiao and the gambling king He Chaolian got married in Bali. Although Yi Jianlian, as a good friend, was unable to attend the wedding because he was going to play in the CBA playoffs, the United Arab League sent sincere wishes to the Shawn Dou couple by recording a carefully prepared video.


In the video, Yi Jianlian changed his image of being calm and taciturn in the past, and frequently played tricks in just one minute: “Shawn Dou is irreplaceable in the world film industry”, “Marlon Brando, Al pacino, Robert De Niro and Teacher Shawn Dou are the four kings in the film industry”, “If Teacher Shawn Dou participates in the NBA draft this year, he will be the first one” and “Can you relax? I have a game tonight. ”


The last sentence of the United Arab League “Can you untie it? “I have a game tonight” is absolutely wonderful, which can be said to be the brightest point of the whole video. To be honest, it really surprised netizens.

Human beings’ longing for eternal life has a long history, and different cultures and religions have their longing and pursuit for eternal life. However, so far, whether human beings can live forever is still an unknown mystery. Starting with the problems of biological cells, genes and mechanical soaring, this paper discusses whether human beings can live forever and the possible ways to live forever.

1. Biological cells: Are there “immortal cells”?

The human body is composed of cells, and in the process of cell division, growth, aging and death, human beings are getting old, sick and dying. If we can find an “immortal cell”, can human beings achieve eternal life?

In fact, no real “immortal cells” have been found yet. However, scientists have discovered a cell with certain “immortal” characteristics-cancer cells. Cancer cells can divide constantly and proliferate indefinitely, but at the same time, they will also destroy healthy tissues and organs, leading to cancer. Therefore, cancer cells are not an ideal way to realize human immortality.


In addition to cancer cells, some organisms also have certain “not old” characteristics. For example, turtles can live to be over 200 years old, and whales can live to be hundreds of years. However, even these creatures will eventually die, but they will live longer than other species.


2. Genes: Is there a “longevity gene”?

In recent years, the development of genetic science has led people to believe that the goal of human immortality may be achieved through gene repair and transformation. In fact, scientists have discovered some genes that may be related to longevity, such as SIRT1, FOXO, mTOR and so on. These genes are involved in important processes such as cell repair and metabolism, and are closely related to the length of life.


For example, scientists found through experiments that by activating SIRT1 gene, the life span of experimental animals can be extended by more than 30%. At the same time, researchers are constantly looking for other genes that may be related to life span, trying to extend human life span through gene editing technology.

However, genetic science is still in the exploratory stage, and the development of related technologies is also facing various difficulties. At the same time, gene editing and repair may also bring some unexpected consequences. Four, other possible ways

In addition to the possible ways mentioned above, there are also some other scientific technologies and theories that may have an impact on human beings’ realization of eternal life.

Stem cell technology

Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into many different cell types, and the development of stem cell technology is considered to be a field with great potential. Scientists are exploring how to use stem cell technology to repair and replace human organs and tissues, thus prolonging life.


cloning technology

The development of cloning technology is also considered as a possible way to achieve immortality. Through cloning technology, human beings can copy an identical individual, thus achieving the goal of eternal life. However, there are still many ethical and moral problems in this technology, such as whether it will lead to human beings becoming commodities and so on.


artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence is a rapidly developing technology, and its potential has attracted people’s extensive attention. Through artificial intelligence, human beings can better understand their own life process and mechanism, discover new treatment methods and drugs, and thus prolong their life.

For example, artificial intelligence can help doctors predict the disease risk and treatment effect of patients more accurately, thus improving the treatment efficiency and success rate. At the same time, artificial intelligence can also help scientists analyze and understand life science data faster, thus accelerating the development of new drugs.

However, artificial intelligence technology is still in the stage of continuous development, and more research and exploration are needed.

V. Conclusion

Although the realization of immortality is still an unknown mystery, the continuous development and breakthrough of science and technology make us full of expectations and hopes for the future. From biological cells, genes, mechanical soaring, stem cell technology, cloning technology, artificial intelligence and many other fields, human beings have been looking for possible ways to live forever.

However, we also need to maintain a cautious and awe-inspiring attitude, and consider its possible impact and consequences while exploring and studying. We need to seriously think about how to balance scientific and technological progress and moral norms and find a suitable balance point. Only in this way can we explore better.

As all the fans familiar with Yi Jianlian know, the United Arab League is a very introverted handsome young man. He is low-key and pragmatic, never takes the initiative to joke, and looks serious all day. This is also the most fundamental reason why he can’t stay in the NBA for a long time. If the United Arab League has half the humor of Yao Ming, maybe his achievements in the NBA will be higher than now.


In fact, the United Arab League was not like this at first. In his early days in the NBA, WB often shared his daily life, which was particularly funny. Unfortunately, he was shut down by sunspots and never shared his daily life again. Especially when he was called “Lianmei” by unscrupulous netizens, Yi Jianlian was quite angry. He devoted his whole career to China basketball and devoted himself wholeheartedly to the wonderful performance of the fans. In the end, he was not sure, and it was still dark everywhere. That period was the lowest point in Yi Jianlian’s career.


Now, the United Arab League reappears a naughty year, as if it had suddenly returned to the past, and the sunny big boy is still there. The 36-year-old Yi Jianlian is on the verge of retirement, and his remaining games seem to be touring performances. At this time, those sunspots have already turned to powder, and no one can hear the voice of Yi Jianlian anymore.


At present, qi zhou is like Yi Jianlian in his early years. Although many people don’t want to admit it, who can replace qi zhou in the China men’s basketball team? Therefore, the Basketball Association will take qi zhou back to CBA at all costs.

After the end of this season’s journey, Beijing Shougang will gather again after a month’s holiday.

FIBA officially announced the draw for the 2023 Men’s Basketball World Cup. The Australian men’s basketball team, which belongs to the Asian Basketball Federation, was placed in the first file, the old Iranian men’s basketball team was placed in the fifth file, the China men’s basketball team was placed in the sixth file, and the Japanese men’s basketball team, which has three NBA players and is one of the hosts of this tournament, was only placed in the seventh file, which is surprising. Thirty-two teams will be divided into eight groups. According to the principle of avoiding teams in the same continent, China men’s basketball team will have a chance to advance to the top 16 as long as it doesn’t draw in the fourth place.


According to a number of domestic media reports, the pterosaur team in the Bay Area, which recruited a number of well-known CBA players last season, has officially sent an invitation to Li Chunjiang, who has been banned by chinese basketball association for five years, hoping that it can replace Gore and lead the team in the East Asian Super League next season.


However, it is still possible for Li Chunjiang, a wealthy Shanghai coach, to retain his coaching. After all, he has not been completely banned from basketball activities by chinese basketball association, and his salary remains unchanged. It may also be a good choice to be promoted to become the vice president of the team or the head coach of the echelon and help the club build a youth training system again. Li Nan has the same possibility. As for the notorious Shi Linjie, it is better to keep him away from the basketball circle.


When it comes to Shi Linjie, I have to mention the West Thermal River. At the beginning, the West Thermal River, which beat up Shi Linjie in the restaurant, will expire after the end of this season. Whether to officially retire and become a full-time coach needs to be discussed with the club. However, according to Carter, a well-known basketball media person, although the dividend of CBA League exceeded 20.8 million this season, Nanjing Tongxi Club still lost as much as 15.73 million yuan. Now that foreign aid Achur has left the team and returned to play in Australia NBL, the top salary contract of West Thermal Power River has expired, and all the home and away games will be opened in the regular season next season. Perhaps Nanjing Tongxi can turn losses into profits in the financial report, but it is a pity that with the lack of foreign aid of 4 quarters and 5 people and Achur’s powerful insider, Lin Wei and Wang Lanying will encounter a new show wall again. Perhaps playoff tickets are still out of reach for Nanjing Tongxi.


With the Liaoning men’s basketball team beating Shougang in Beijing away from home, three seats have been decided in the semi-finals of the playoffs, and Zhejiang Guangsha needs to return to the home of Guangdong Hongyuan to fight with the 11-time champion to advance to the top four. Since Ren Junfei scratched Hu Jinqiu’s shoulder with his nails in the last match between the two sides, Guangdong Hongyuan’s football style was once again condemned by fans all over the country. In order to win the game, I don’t hesitate to dig out my crotch, pad my feet, or even use my claws. Is this what the fans want to see in China basketball? No wonder Fan Ziming said something after the war in Beijing and Liaoning that the Liaoning men’s basketball team won the game aboveboard, so the question is, which strong team in CBA won the game aboveboard? Has chinese basketball association signed the long-forgotten referee’s report?


According to Beijing media reports, Guo Ailun was in a bad state in the second match with Beijing Shougang. After the game, he did not return to Liaoning with the team, but stayed in Beijing to treat his finger injury. If Liaoning men’s basketball team wants to go further in the next playoffs, the two main players, Guo Ailun and Han Dejun, must overcome their injuries and find their state as soon as possible.



After the end of this season’s journey, Beijing Shougang will gather again after a month’s holiday. There are many things that the team needs to do during the offseason this summer. Is Leiden, who changed the team’s offensive style after taking over, retained? Are all the three foreign AIDS with poor performance cleaned? Ten players including Fang Shuo, Raymond, Fan Ziming and Tian Yuxiang have expired their contracts, which players should go and which players should stay? Fang Shuo has met the standards of the contract for veteran transfer, and whether the vacant top salary quota is used to introduce them.

Prompted by the platform, my original articles have been published to other platforms such as Gongmou and H recently, or registered under my ID, and the rights protection procedure has been officially started. I hope the plagiarists will respect themselves!

Live broadcast: On March 11th, when interviewed by the reporter of Corriere dello Sport, Carnevali, CEO of Sassuolo, talked about the rumors of Fratesi and Rome.

In the 26th round of Serie A, Naples won 2-0, which means that they are back on the right track after the last round of defeat. They scored 68 points and were far ahead in the championship, which also shows that the other four teams can only reach the second place at most. From the point of view of points, originally Inter Milan was most likely to hold the second place in the standings. After all, after the first 25 rounds, their points reached 50 points, temporarily ahead of Lazio, AC Milan and other teams!


However, with the end of the 26th round, Inter Milan, the 19th champion of Serie A, almost ruined its advantage. In this round of competition, the Nerazzurri played against spezia, and in the first round, Inzaghi led a 3-0 victory. In addition, the starting price of Vispe Zia of Inter Milan is 278.1 million euros, which shows that the Nerazzurri have won completely. Even the Nerazzurri are considered to have the strongest lineup in Serie A, and it seems that they deserve to win again. Unfortunately, things didn’t work out, and the “Nerazzurri” finally faced defeat under the frequent waste of opportunities.

Live broadcast: On March 11th, when interviewed by the reporter of Corriere dello Sport, Carnevali, CEO of Sassuolo, talked about the rumors of Fratesi and Rome.

Carnevali said: “We should have a correct attitude. Sassuolo should be regarded as a springboard for players to join the giants. Fratesi has all the strength to make a leap forward, and now we must try to reach an agreement that can satisfy our three parties. We will find the best solution. In addition to economic factors, we will also try our best to meet the requirements of the players themselves. ”

“We have been investigating Bovi and volpato in Rome. Before that, Rome sent many high-potential teenagers to us for training, giving us a high split, such as Politano and Lorenzo pellegrini.”

According to the whole market, besides Roma, Juventus are also paying attention to Fratesi.

(real steel fist)


From the 5th minute when lautaro got the chance to play, to the end of the first half, Inter Milan launched more than 5 attacks, but all failed, including a penalty. However, lautaro missed the penalty in the first half and became the player who missed the penalty the second time since the 2021-2022 season: 8 penalty kicks and 4 penalties. In the second half, Inter Milan stepped up their offensive. From the 46th minute to the 83rd minute, lautaro and brozovic launched attacks in vain, and finally the score was rewritten with the help of Lu Kaku’s penalty.


However, spezia’s luck was even better. In the 55th minute, Danielle Maldini was unguarded and scored from the front of the restricted area. In the 87th minute, Spezia relied on a penalty to kill the game directly, and Inter Milan lost 1-2. What we need to know is that the possession rate of the “Nerazzurri” in this battle is 38 percentage points higher than that of the opponent, and the number of shots reached 28 times, which is 7 times that of the opponent. However, it is still embarrassing that it is still impossible to win.


Interestingly, the defeat of this game is also the first defeat of Inter Milan against spezia. In the previous nine games, the Nerazzurri won eight games. It seems that the team’s instability has seriously affected a series of records! Of course, the defeat of Inter Milan is undoubtedly a good thing for AC Milan in the same city. After the first 25 rounds, the Rossoneri accumulated 47 points.


In other words, if we win this round, then AC Milan points can also reach 50 points, which is consistent with Inter Milan, and then better compete for the second place. You know, in the first 18 rounds, AC Milan beat Inter Milan and held the second place in the standings. Now it seems that Pioli is expected to lead the team to restore the victory!

An unknown killer preying on pigs in China has been identified as a new kind of coronavirus.

People who reached what’s now Canada’s Pacific coast around 13,000 years ago made some lasting impressions — with their feet.

Beach excavations on Calvert Island, off British Columbia’s coast, revealed 29 human footprints preserved in clay-based sediment, says a team led by archaeologist Duncan McLaren. About 60 centimeters below the sandy surface, the deposits contained the footprints of at least three individuals, the Canada-based researchers report March 28 in PLOS ONE.

Smudged remains of many more footprints surrounded these discoveries. Ancient people walking on the shoreline apparently trampled those footprints and distorted their shapes, the scientists say.

Radiocarbon dating of bits of wood from shore pine trees found in the clay sediment narrowed the age of the footprints from 13,317 to 12,633 years old. Who these footprints belonged to is unknown. Their arrival roughly coincided with the North American appearance of Clovis people, makers of distinctive spearpoints who may have entered the New World via an ice-free, inland route (SN: 5/13/17, p. 8). But stone tools unearthed with the Calvert Island footprints were not made by Clovis people, says McLaren of the Hakai Institute, a research organization in Heriot Bay, and the University of Victoria.

“This discovery places Clovis-age people on the British Columbia coast, far from a so-called ‘ice-free corridor’ and where no Clovis technology has ever been found,” says archaeologist Jon Erlandson of the University of Oregon in Eugene. A long-standing idea that Clovis people were the first Americans, already challenged by recent finds, “is dead in the water,” he argues.

Recent challenges to the Clovis-first proposal include evidence that humans inhabited Florida’s Gulf Coast about 14,550 years ago (SN: 6/11/16, p. 8) and South America as early as 18,500 years ago (SN: 12/26/15, p. 10). A 14,500-year-old child’s footprint has also been unearthed in South America.

People disembarking from canoes or other vessels may have created the Calvert Island footprints when preparing to move from an ancient shoreline to drier ground, the researchers propose. No sets of tracks made by individuals walking in any particular direction were found.

“Only an expanded excavation can capture how the track makers were moving,” says biological anthropologist Neil Roach at Harvard University. Patterns in the tracks indicate that people repeatedly walked across Calvert Island’s shoreline, but whether they came to gather food or for some other reason is unknown, Roach adds.

The new discoveries add to evidence that people inhabited Canada’s Pacific coast 14,000 years ago or more, as the last ice age wound down and glaciers retreated from coastal areas. Evidence of mastodon hunting dates to around 13,800 years ago at a coastal site in Washington state.

Some researchers suspect that initial settlers of the Americas came from northeast Asia and traveled down the Pacific coast, making inland forays along the way. Rising sea levels from melting ice sheets presumably submerged coastal campsites of these ancient people, erasing most evidence of them.

Between 14,000 and 11,000 years ago, the sea level was two to three meters lower on Calvert Island than today, McLaren’s group estimates. The researchers looked for archaeological remains at shoreline spots exposed at low tide and underwater at high tide. Excavations in 2014 revealed a suspected human footprint. Continued digging in 2015 and 2016 uncovered 28 more footprints.

Many foot impressions included toe marks, indicating that individuals who made the prints were not wearing shoes. Digital enhancement of a footprint with no clear toe marks showed drag marks made by two toes, apparently while slipping on soft ground.


An unknown killer preying on pigs in China has been identified as a new kind of coronavirus. And like the deadly SARS virus, this one also got its start in bats.

In late 2016, pigs mysteriously started having intense diarrhea and vomiting on farms in China’s southeastern Guangdong province. By May 2017, the disease had killed 24,693 piglets. Tests failed to pin the outbreak, which has since waned, on common pig viruses.

By analyzing samples from sick piglets, researchers pieced together the genetic blueprint of the virus causing swine acute diarrhea syndrome, or SADS. It shares 95 percent of its genetic code with another coronavirus, HKU2, detected in horseshoe bats in 2007. Evidence suggests these two coronaviruses share a common ancestor and that SADS jumped from bats to pigs, researchers report April 4 in Nature.

No farm workers tested positive for SADS, so the disease doesn’t appear to infect humans. But the first documented human cases of SARS, or severe acute respiratory syndrome, emerged 100 kilometers from the pig farms hit by SADS. The study adds to evidence that keeping an eye on bat viruses could reduce future viral outbreaks — in pigs and humans.

There’s stiff competition for the most elaborate eyeballs in the animal kingdom, but a mollusk that turns up on dinner plates might be a finalist.

There’s stiff competition for the most elaborate eyeballs in the animal kingdom, but a mollusk that turns up on dinner plates might be a finalist.

Each of a scallop’s eyes — it has up to 200 of them, each about a millimeter in diameter — contains millions of perfectly square, flat crystals that build up into a mirrored mosaic, new research shows. And that shiny surface is curved in a way that lets a scallop focus light onto two different retinas.

Scientists have known for a long time that scallop eyes are unusual. In the 1960s, biologist Michael Land showed that each scallop eye uses a mirror to focus light into images, while most other eyes use lenses (SN: 5/28/16, p. 22). That natural mirror is made of crystals of guanine, Land determined — better known for its job as one of the four nucleotides that make up DNA. At the time, imaging technology wasn’t good enough to show how the bivalves built the mirror. Now, cryo-electron microscopy is bringing those blueprints out of their shell, researchers report in the Dec. 1 Science.

“It’s such an unusual visual system,” says Daniel Speiser, a marine ecologist at the University of South Carolina in Columbia who wasn’t part of the study. “The closer you look, the more puzzling it gets.”

For one thing, the guanine crystals that build the scallop’s eye mirror are perfectly square, says study coauthor Benjamin Palmer, a biologist at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. “That’s really weird,” he says. “It’s the first time we’ve seen a perfect square!”

Guanine doesn’t form crystal shapes that evenly pack together in the lab. That means that, somehow, the scallop is controlling the crystallization process, Palmer says. The square crystals fit together edge-to-edge like bathroom tiles to form a smooth surface that minimizes image distortion.

A single layer of this guanine mosaic is transparent. But each scallop eye stacks up 20 to 30 of these tiled sheets to create a reflective surface. The whole contraption is something like a telescope that pieces together hexagonal mirrors into one giant curve (SN: 4/30/16, p. 32).

A few other animals also have mirrored eyes, but rarely do those mirrors form a clear image like they do in scallops, Palmer says. The study examined Pecten maximus eyes, but other scallops in the same genus have a similarly intricate setup.

And the scallop’s eye mirror isn’t shaped like a perfect hemisphere, the researchers found. Instead, the mirror has an unusual 3-D shape that allows the scallop to focus light on one of two retinas, depending on the angle of the incoming light. One retina is tuned to dimmer light coming from the peripheral vision; the other best captures movement in bright light.

“This is a new idea for how the scallop can make use of both retinas in the same eye,” says Speiser — a question that’s long vexed scallop experts.

Sinking lots of energy into vision makes sense if you’re a predator who hunts by sight, Speiser adds. While scallops can spurt through the ocean by rhythmically snapping their bivalve shells open and shut like Pac-Man, the sea creatures are filter feeders that don’t need to stalk their prey. So why they have so many eyes and such complexity within each eye remains a mystery.


A new type of 3-D printing ink has a special ingredient: live bacteria.

Materials made with this “living ink” could help clean up environmental pollution, harvest energy via photosynthesis or help make medical supplies, researchers report online December 1 in Science Advances.

This study “shows for the first time that 3-D printed bacteria can make useful materials,” says Anne Meyer, a biologist at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands who wasn’t involved in the work.

The newly concocted printing ink is a polymer mix called a hydrogel that is blended with bacteria and a broth of nutrients that helps bacterial cells grow and reproduce. Eventually, the bacteria use up all of this built-in sustenance, says study coauthor Manuel Schaffner, a material scientist at ETH Zurich. But the ink is porous, so dipping a 3-D printed structure in more broth can reload it with nutrients, he says.

Schaffner and colleagues printed a grid embedded with a breed of bacteria called Pseudomonas putida, which eats the hazardous chemical phenol. When the researchers placed this lattice in phenol-contaminated water, the bacteria completely purified the water in just a few days.

“This result has big implications for the application of 3-D printing [to] clean up toxic chemicals,” Meyer says. Lattices packing various types of chemical-hungry bacteria could create special water filters or help clean up oil spills. And unlike free-floating bacteria, cells locked in a 3-D grid could be plucked out of cleaned-up water and reused somewhere else.

But the lattices printed for this study are just centimeters across, points out Jürgen Groll, a materials scientist at the University of Würzburg in Germany not involved in the work, so “scaling up is really going to be an issue if you want to deploy these commercially.”

Bacteria-filled 3-D prints could also produce bacterial cellulose — a gelatinous substance used for dressing wounds. Bacterial cellulose is typically grown in sheets, but “imagine if you have a burn on your elbow,” Schaffner says. “You try to wrap flat, wet tissue around this area, it’s prone to detach.” Swathes of cellulose grown on 3-D printed structures could precisely match the contours of specific body parts, curbing the risk of contaminants getting trapped under wrinkles in the cellulose or the material peeling off.

The researchers demonstrated this idea by mixing up a batch of ink laced with the cellulose-producing bacteria Acetobacter xylinum and printing a patch in the precise shape of a doll’s face. Leaving the material in a sealed container for a few days “nicely produced a cellulose film on top of the printed structure,” says study coauthor Patrick Rühs, a food scientist also at ETH Zurich.

Bacteria can be genetically modified to produce various proteins and other substances humans need, so 3-D printed bacterial materials may have many other medical uses, too. Groll imagines a kind of “smart Band-Aid,” for instance, infused with medicine-secreting bacteria to speed healing.